Phonological processes: patterns of sound errors that typically developing children use to simplify speech as they are learning to talk. They do this because they lack the ability to appropriately coordinate their lips, tongue, teeth, palate and jaw for clear speech. By age five most children naturally outgrow their use of phonological error patterns.
Substitution Processes: replacing one class of sounds for another class of sounds
1.Gliding â€“ the substitution of a liquid sound (typically letter â€œlâ€ or â€œrâ€) with a glide sound (letters â€œwâ€, â€œyâ€ or â€œjâ€).
i.â€œrailâ€ may be pronounced â€œwailâ€
ii.â€œplayâ€ may be pronounced â€œpwayâ€
iii.â€œyellowâ€ may be pronounced â€œyeyyoâ€
Â§Usually outgrown by age five
2.Backing â€“ the substitution of a sound produced in the front of the mouth (like â€œtâ€ or â€œnâ€) with a sound produced in the back of the mouth (like â€œkâ€ or â€œgâ€).
i.â€œduckâ€ may be pronounced â€œkuckâ€
ii.â€œdogâ€ may be pronounced â€œgogâ€
iii.â€œcatâ€ may be pronounced â€œcakâ€
Â§Typically only occurs in children with more sever phonological delays
3.Vowelization â€“ the substitution of a vowel sound for â€œlâ€ or â€œerâ€ sounds.
i.â€œappleâ€ may be pronounced â€œappohâ€
ii.â€œriverâ€ may be pronounced â€œrivuhâ€
iii.â€œcareâ€ may be pronounced â€œcayuhâ€
Â§Age of elimination of this process varies from child to child
4.Stopping â€“ the substitution of a stop sound (â€œb,â€ â€œp,â€ â€œt,â€ â€œd,â€ â€œk,â€ â€œgâ€) for a fricative sound (â€œf,â€ â€œv,â€ â€œs,â€ â€œz,â€ â€œh,â€ â€œth,â€ â€œsh,â€ and â€œchâ€).
i.â€œwishâ€ may be pronounced â€œwitâ€
ii.â€œpuzzleâ€ may be pronounced â€œpuddleâ€
iii.â€œdressâ€ may be pronounced â€œdretâ€
Â§Depending on the fricative sound this process is eliminated between the ages of three and six
5.Fronting – the term used when sounds that should be made in the back of the mouth (velar) are replaced with a sound made in the front of the mouth (alveolar).
i.â€œcookieâ€ may be pronounced â€œtootieâ€
ii.â€œcarâ€ may be pronounced â€œtarâ€
iii.â€œgateâ€ may be pronounced â€œdateâ€
Â§Usually eliminated between ages 3-4
Syllable Structure Processes: syllables are reduced, omitted or repeated
1.Cluster reduction â€“ the reduction of a consonant cluster (two consonants next to one another) to one consonant.
i.â€œTreeâ€ may be pronounced â€œteeâ€
ii.â€œStayâ€ may be pronounced â€œsayâ€
iii.â€œFreeâ€ may be pronounced â€œfeeâ€
Â§Usually outgrown by 4 years old except for words starting with â€œsâ€
2.Final Consonant Deletion â€“ the elimination of the final consonant in a word.
i.â€œRoadâ€ may be pronounced â€œrohâ€
ii.â€œCatâ€ may be pronounced â€œcaâ€
Â§Usually eliminated by age 3
3.Initial consonant deletion â€“ the elimination of the beginning consonant of a word.
i.â€œbellyâ€ may be pronounced â€œellyâ€
ii.â€œcapeâ€ may be pronounced â€œapeâ€
Â§Typically experienced by children with more sever phonological delays
4.Syllable reduction â€“ the elimination of a syllable from a word that contains two or more syllables
i.â€œComputerâ€ may be pronounced â€œputerâ€
ii.â€œVanillaâ€ may be pronounced â€œnillaâ€
iii.â€œremoteâ€ may be pronounced â€œmoteâ€
Â§The unstressed syllable is usually the one children eliminate
Assimilation processes: when sounds/syllables start to sound like surrounding sounds
1.Assimilation â€“ when a consonant sound in a word starts to sound the same as another consonant in the word
i.â€œcupâ€ may be pronounced â€œkugâ€
ii.â€œnameâ€ may be pronounced â€œmameâ€
Â§Typically outgrown by age three but can linger until age nine in more severe cases of phonological delay
2.Reduplication â€“ the repetition of a complete or incomplete syllable in substation for a word.
i.â€œbottleâ€ may be pronounced â€œbabaâ€
ii.â€œdaddyâ€ may be pronounced â€œdadaâ€
iii.â€œwaterâ€ may be pronounced â€œwawaâ€
Â§Typically outgrown by age three
3.Denasalization â€“ the substitution of a nasal consonant (â€œnâ€ or â€œmâ€) with a non-nasal consonant (â€œbâ€ or â€œdâ€)
i.â€œnoseâ€ may be pronounced â€œdozeâ€
ii. â€œmaybeâ€ may be pronounced â€œbabyâ€
Â§Typically eliminated by 2.5 years of age